The Galapagos Islands are home to some of the world’s most exotic species, from sharks and dolphins to marine iguanas and swallow-tailed gulls. However, the Galapagos is perhaps best known for the giant tortoises that inhabit the Ecuadorian islands.

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Other than Seychelles, the Galapagos Islands are the only place on the globe that these creatures exist. They have been indigenous to the islands for about one million years and are a definitive part of any Galapagos cruise. Many species of animals are tracked to follow their progress and breeding. The technology used is similar to the Fleet Vehicle Tracking that is used by companies such as and will use GPS to send information back to a central hub.

In the 1970s, the giant tortoise who later became known as Lonesome George rose to fame after his discovery by Hungarian malacologist József Vágvölgyi. Lonesome George was the last surviving individual of the subspecies Chelonoidis nigra abingdonii, otherwise known as the Pinta Island Tortoise. Due to his status as the last of his kind, George was referred to as the ‘rarest creature in the world’. Shortly after being discovered, he was relocated to the Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island for his own safety.

In the hope of prolonging the existence of the subspecies, George was penned with two female giant tortoises from Isabela Island that were genetically similar enough to reproduce with the last Pinta Island Tortoise. Scientists hoped to produce offspring that would be intergraded, as it would be impossible to create pure-breeds of the Pinta subspecies due to the lack of a female Pinta tortoise.

In July 2008, at the age of 98, George was reported to have mated with one of his female companions. Thirteen eggs were produced that summer, offering hope for the conservation of the Pinta Island Tortoise. However, by November, the Charles Darwin Foundation stated that 80% of the eggs were believed to be inviable. By the following month, the remaining eggs had failed to hatch and x-rays showed they were inviable.

On July 23rd, 2009, precisely a year after George’s first mating attempt, a second clutch of five more eggs was found, providing another opportunity for the continuation of George’s species. The Galapagos National Park described the eggs as being in perfect condition and prospects for George’s potential offspring looked positive. However, when the eggs were moved to an incubator on 16th December, it was revealed that the incubation period had ended meaning the eggs were inviable.

By 2011, successive reproduction efforts were unsuccessful, leading to the park removing the two female tortoises from George’s enclosure. With mating efforts having proved ineffective, it was accepted that George was to be the very last Pinta Island tortoise, and with his death, the species would go extinct.

On June 24th, 2012, Lonesome George was announced dead by the caretaker of the Galapagos National Park and the rarest creature in the world went extinct.



The Importance of Silicone in the Aerospace Industry

Silicone seals, gaskets and hoses may seem humble things, and often taken for granted, but without them, a lot of groundbreaking technology would be impossible. With better resistance to stress, heat, and oxidation than rubber, silicone products help industries like automotive and aerospace push ever further beyond their previous limitations.

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Strong Market Growth Predicted

A market trends analysis from Grand View Research published in January 2019 predicts strong growth in aircraft and aerospatial industries over the next decade.

Global aerospace parts manufacturing was an 849-billion-dollar-market in 2017 and is expected to continue to grow at around 3.8% until 2025. New generations of lightweight and more fuel-efficient aircraft will drive most of the growth and depend on materials with better temperature tolerance, like silicone, PTFE, FFKM, titanium aluminide, and aluminum lithium. Elastomers like silicones and FFKM readily tolerate temperature extremes between -55 °C and +300 °C.

Another report from the same source predicts similar growth in the silicone market over that period. Globally it was valued at $14.17 billion in 2018 and is expected to grow at 4.5% per annum up to 2025. This figure includes increased use of silicone as an oil additive, as an insulator and sealant for electronic components, and for more familiar roles such as silicone hose and gaskets. Various silicone hose products are available from suppliers such as

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New Aircraft

The projected growth is tempting for new companies to enter the aerospace market. American start-up Hermeus, based in Atlanta Georgia, proposes building a commercial airliner capable of reaching Mach 5 – that’s around 3800mph. By comparison, Concorde had a cruise speed of just over Mach 2 (about 1330 mph), and a conventional liner usually flies at just 600mph or lower. If the liner is built, it will mean a flight from New York to London will take about the same time as a train journey from Leicester.

Hermeus intends to use combined-cycle turbine engines. Elastomers play a crucial role in these engines, as well as in the latest hydraulic systems, gearboxes, and airframes, by allowing the aircraft to handle the harsher temperatures generated by more powerful engines. They are also more chemically resistant to the oils used to lubricate turbine engines and hydraulics. The greater resistance of silicone and other new elastomers to deformation under pressure also helps minimize expensive maintenance regimes.

Reduce your risk of football injuries with these exercises

According to a recent study, the most common football injuries sustained during training, are the hamstring, quadriceps, calf and lumbar disc injuries. However, doing just three things can reduce your likelihood of landing all these injuries.

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This is welcome news, as over 80% of players pick up at least one injury per season and this injury will be enough to make them miss at least two games. But these three things are self-explanatory. Players need to ensure, they get enough sleep, get the proper nutrition and engage in mobility drills. They should also wear the appropriate kit such as Nike Football Kits which they can find at places like

But what kind of drills are the best?

Prehab before rehab

Prehab has become somewhat of a buzzword in football and while it does sound a little gimmicky, studies show it really works. Prehabilitation is a form of strength training for the entire body, regardless of the sport being played. It aims to prevent injuries before they occur and can also increase performance on the field.

Hindu press up

One of the most talked about prehab drills is the Hindu press up. With your feet slightly wider apart than your shoulders, you lean forward to create an inverted ‘V’ shape. Now keep your legs straight and bend your arms until your chin hovers above the floor. Then arch your back, which will shift you forward and lead you to look up towards the ceiling. Complete the move by raising your hips again to make the inverted ‘V’ position again.

Taking inspiration from yoga, this flow can be repeated 10 or 20 times and will work muscles from head to toe with very little risk of injury.

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Ankle alphabet training

This exercise is all about creating a variety of movements with a goal, i.e. completing the alphabet. To begin, stretch out your legs in front of you, lift one leg off the ground and use your pointed toes to draw the letters of the alphabet. Patience and practice are important here. Aim for accuracy to get the most out of this flow.

However, it’s important to remember, no exercise is an absolute guarantee against injury but you can make it less likely with drills and prehab work.

All about the FA’s People’s Cup

You no longer have to be a professional international player to take part in an FA tournament. The FA People’s Cup is a five-a-side competition that gives everyone a chance to get in on the action, regardless of age or ability. Organized by the FA, BBC’s “Get Inspired” campaign and small-pitch football clubs, any non-professional player can join in, whether they’re part of a regular five-a-side team or just individuals who enjoy playing occasionally. This has helped to inspire many people to take up the sport as well as encourage people to take the sport further.

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Record numbers

With 16 categories for male and female players ranging from under-14 to veterans, including disability and walking categories, the tournament, which only just completed its third edition in 2017, saw a record number of 45,000 players from 6,000 teams entering. The competition usually kicks off in February, with the semifinals in March and the finals in Birmingham over the May bank holiday weekend.

How to get involved

The competition is free to enter. Go to and register your interest for the next tournament. Each year more and more people enter their teams. You can either enter as a team captain if you already have a team together, or you can enter as an individual and be placed in a team by your local center. You’ll be asked for a team name, so have one ready that suits your team’s identity.

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Teams are also expected to provide their own football kits, which include shirts, shorts, socks, shin pads and football boots suitable for astroturf. If you’re an individual player who is joining a wild card team, the organizers will provide a bib for you to wear over your own kit. It’s worth looking at Football Training Kits like to get all the kit and equipment you need.

Teams begin the competition in local heats, which include a group stage and a knockout stage. After that, they move on to the semifinals, which also take on a group stage and knockout stage format. The winners from the semi-final in each category then progress to the national final.

Do you have what it takes to go all the way in the FA People’s Cup? Whether you’re part of a Sunday League five-a-side team or just fancy teaming up with a few like-minded individuals to see how far you can progress, you too could be following the footballing legends as you begin your journey to victory.

The difference between flexible and metal ductwork

Ducting is used in a wide variety of situations, for heating and ventilation (HVAC) systems and for extracting fumes and dust, for example. But it comes in a number of different types, most notably flexible ducting and rigid, metal ducting.

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The essential difference between these is obvious, but there are other considerations too which we need to look at in more detail.

Flexible Ducting

A flexible duct can be made of a number of different materials. These include PVC, rubber, stainless steel, galvanized steel, and coated polyester fabric. Its advantages are that it’s easy to handle and to attach to plant or to more rigid ducting and this can be done using metal band clamps or zip ties. This means it’s easier and faster to install, especially in existing structures.

The material you choose for your ducting will depend on the environment as in extreme conditions some will stand up better than others. A galvanized spiral duct from a supplier like, for example, will be more resistant to heat and cooling. You also need to think about factors like abrasion and exposure to the elements.

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With flexible ducting, it’s important to plan the installation to avoid sharp curves and kinks as well as long unsupported runs. Joints need to be supported and it’s also important to ensure that they are properly sealed. This type of ducting works best for short runs and for adding branches to existing systems.

Metal ducting

Rigid metal ducting is usually specified when it’s being installed at the building stage rather than being retrofitted to an existing structure. It requires more detailed design and measurement and careful installation to ensure that it does its job effectively.

Metal ducting is commonly used for heating and air conditioning systems and planning for it needs to take account of the level of heat and volume of air to be moved and metal ducting offers lower resistance to air flow, so the system is likely to be more efficient overall –

Metal ducting is a more expensive option to install initially. However, it can deliver savings in the long run as ongoing maintenance costs are likely to be lower. The choice ultimately comes down to the size and type of system, how it’s going to be used, the location and design of the building, and of course, the budget.

When it was announced that there would be a whole new set of channels coming onto the Television the country rejoiced! They would be getting the choice of 2 channels instead of just 1. Arguments about what to watch were soon going to be raging in British homes as the public got the choice of this or that. Whatever the decision there had to be a decent signal receiver on the roof and the Ariel was the only answer. This is still true today in our digital world and a TV Aerial Installation Cheltenham based organization like can provide the service you need.

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The BBC had been putting out programs since 1935 even when hardly anyone had a television. By 1955 the rates of ownership had gone up thanks to the televised Coronation of Elizbeth II, cheaper imports and the chance to rent rather than buy. After 20 years of monopoly the Government thought it would be a good idea to force the complacent BBC into trying a bit harder by introducing free to view competition in the shape of Independent Television or ITV, although you still had to pay for a TV license so, in effect, you paid twice if you bought something advertised on TV. The BBC was determined to scupper the opening night so and they decided the only way they could do that was by killing off poor Grace Archer in a Barn fire, the effect of which Ambridge is still trying to recover from today.

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The idea behind ITV is that it would provide Regional programming. Lots of different companies sprang up and put in tenders to control the output and produce and area programs. They would make and by programs put out by their fellow independent channels and then act like the BBC did not exist. For there part, the BBC did the same.

One thing that came out of ITV was a sense that they needed to identify themselves. All the BBC needed to do was have a man in a Dinnerjack say in the plummy voice “This is the BBC…” and you knew what you were watching. ITV came up with lots of different ones. Some, like Anglia Television, featured an Airfix model of a Knight on a turntable and the words Anglia on the flag. London Weekend Television had examples of the London skyline reflected in the Thames. Central just had a big white circle. All of them had a short burst of music and depending on what came on you were able to gauge the quality of the program.

Whatever the output ITV was here to stay.

Smarter ways to encourage people to take part in medical research

The Apple iPhone is charting new territory as it enters the world of medical research thanks to its medical platform called ResearchKit, which was launched back in March 2015.

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GlaxoSmithKline will be Apple’s first partner in medical research, using the iPhone to track data on rheumatoid arthritis. Participants in the study will use an app created by GSK and based on ResearchKit to track how the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis affect people on a day-to-day basis.

How it works

Patients will use the app, which is called Patient Rheumatoid Arthritis Data from the Real World, or PARADE for short, to track data on their daily symptoms. When participants perform a specific wrist exercise, the iPhone’s sensors will collect data on joint pain, mood, and fatigue, which are common to rheumatoid arthritis.

In addition, participants will be asked a series of questions about their symptoms in order to track how they feel from day to day. The study will follow 300 patients, who will participate in the study for three months.

Study benefits

One of the aspects of the iPhone medical research platform that attracted GSK is that it makes it easier for people to participate in a medical study. According to the Clinical Leader, in a typical study, patients would be required to visit a hospital or research facility, where doctors, nurses or other staff would have to question patients and record data. The iPhone eliminates staff, paperwork, and travel from the equation, making it more cost-effective and less intrusive for study participants.

The iPhone can open new doors to research for a contract research organization or those in Patient Recruitment Services such as as it may become easier for people to participate in these kinds of trials in the future.

Benefits for Apple

The study with GSK will be an important step for Apple in its attempt to increase its presence in the healthcare technology field. In addition to the ResearchKit app, Apple has tried to bring health tracking to the public through its Apple Watch, which allows users to monitor their physical exertion and heart activity.

The use of ResearchKit, however, offers an attractive, cost-effective option for medical companies and research facilities, which could significantly increase profits if it is adopted on a large scale and becomes widely accepted in the industry.


Should I Participate in Paid Medical Trials as a Patient Volunteer?

Deciding whether or not to participate in paid medical trials as a patient volunteer can be a difficult choice. On one hand, you may find a more effective method of treatment than the standard option. However, you may also leave yourself open to experiencing discomforting side effects as a result of the trial.  You should ensure that you talking to professional companies in order to find out the pros and cons of taking part in each study. You will then be able to identify the studies that may be most appropriate for you and your current medical history.  trials 4 us offer paid medical trials and can provide you with any information that you may need in order to make an educated decision.

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Clinical trials are carried out with the intention to decide whether or not a new medical treatment, such as a drug or device, can be used effectively on humans. Another important factor to discover during the research process is whether or not this new treatment is safe. After all, the FDA will not approve the treatment if the clinical trials carried out cannot prove the safety of the treatment.

Work with a Team of Professionals

Participating in a clinical trial means that you will be in constant contact with experts from the medical industry. This close proximity to expert medical advisors and researchers gives participants a unique opportunity to benefit from their specialist care, advice, support, and guidance. In addition to this, they will be able to offer you advice on the best course of treatment following the clinical trial.

Experience New Treatments

As a volunteer testing a new medical treatment or device of some kind, you could be amongst the first group of people to benefit from such a treatment. This could be incredibly exciting, especially if the treatment turns out to be really effective and perhaps even more so than the standard treatment.

Clinical Trial Risks

Despite the fact that participating in a trial comes with a range of great advantages, there are a few risks that you should be aware of before agreeing to volunteer:

  • Possible side effects that could come with the treatment.
  • Uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of the new treatment.
  • You may require additional check-ups and have to be monitored regularly.
  • The treatment may be ineffective and prove to be no better than the standard treatment.
  • The process can be time-consuming.
  • You may have to spend more on transport to and from the clinic or trial site.
  • The new treatment could be potentially harmful and deemed unsafe after the clinical trial.
Benefits of using a wine cooler

A wine cooler is a must for even the smallest of restaurants or cafés. A cooler is designed to replicate the cool, dark and humid conditions of a wine cellar, ensuring the wine is kept at its best. Some restaurants, or domestic customers, do not have space or capacity for a wine cellar; therefore, a cooler is a great alternative.

When talking about restaurants that offer wine and a beautiful meal you could think about visiting an Italian Restaurant Dublin company to see what they offer and maybe pop to sites such as

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Getting the temperature right

If you are serious about serving wine, you will know how important it is for wine to be kept at the right temperature and humidity level to get the best flavor and aroma out of each glass. If wine gets too cold or dries out, it can lose a great deal of its complexity of taste.
Why buy commercial wine coolers? Isn’t a fridge enough? A fridge will do the job of keeping white, rose, sparkling and even some red wines cool; however, wine coolers do a better job of keeping the wine away from light and maintain higher levels of humidity, which the wine needs. As coolers are warmer than fridges, they use less energy.

Wine coolers can double up as drinks fridges for beer, lager, cider, and soft drinks; in addition, they are ideal for storing some foods, especially cheese, thanks to the higher temperature and humidity. It is really worth considering a wine fridge, even if you are concerned about not having enough space.

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Commercial wine coolers for all spaces

If space is an issue and deterring you from investing in one, you can get small coolers that hold 11 bottles and are no bigger than a normal under-counter drinks fridge. Slightly larger under-counter ones can hold between around 25 and 50 bottles. You can also get slimline coolers that are only 30cm wide, which will squeeze into the tightest of spaces.

Far larger, full-height coolers are also available, of course, which can hold around 70-80 standard bottles of wine. If you have space for more than one cooler, you can maintain them at different temperatures to meet the different chilling requirements of different wines; however, if you are limited by space, some chillers have the capacity to chill at two different temperatures in the same cooler. This is useful as some wines will need less chilling than others.

Top gifts for budding artists

We all like to indulge in our passions from time to time. From love for all things horticultural to a penchant for the drums, the chances are that we all have a special something we use to escape the rat race; however, our passions and hobbies are rarely cheap.

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The average art student in the UK spends hundreds of pounds annually on subsidized materials, while hobbyists may spend even more. Art remains one of the worst-paid jobs in the UK and across Europe, however, with just £10,000 as an average annual wage.

You may want to show your artistic friend you care with a thoughtful gift, but what items should you choose to help them stretch their artistic muscles?

Art equipment

If you have ever visited a friend’s studio, you will have seen just how all-encompassing art can be. It is not uncommon to find a pal buried under mountains of pens, paint, and cardstock. This equipment is essential, with a creative mind probably saying that it is necessary to add even more.

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Storage can become a huge problem. Purchasing an item such as a canvas brush roll to keep your friend’s paint brushes pristine would be a huge help, or how about an antique plan chest for your artistic chum to squirrel away their paper? Your friend can free up space in their room to relax in and be creative. Artists often use their surroundings as inspiration to draw and there is nothing like the outdoors. Looking through a window in a conservatory or through your garden doors and drawing nature would be an artists dream come true. To make this a possible option can be found at a Double Glazing in Cheltenham company.  Notebooks are also a good item for budding artists to carry to improve their shading techniques. Some like to rest their notebook on inexpensive lap trays so that they can draw in comfort.

The techy gift

More and more artists are embracing the technical side of art. With a laptop and some software, you can recreate the effects of many art mediums. The benefits are obvious. With less equipment comes more space to work. You also only have to maintain one item rather than replenish materials as they run out.

An artist can refine their drawing techniques by using add-on equipment, making this an excellent gift. A drawing tablet and stylus simplifies fine detail work – due to their similarity to a pencil and paper, the artist can control their pencil or brush pressure, pressing harder for a darker effect and relaxing the hand for a lighter stroke. This is the perfect digital artist’s companion.