Five sweater materials and their pros and cons

There is a sweater for every man, so whether you live in a cold or hot country, you will find your perfect fit for every occasion!

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Brief history of the sweater

Sweaters were first worn by fishermen who needed warm clothing to protect themselves from the elements. They were knitted by wives and daughters and, until the 19th century, used solely as a work garment. The sweater then became part of the uniform of the Royal British Navy, and became an everyday item of clothing at the beginning of the 20th century.

A great example of a traditional fisherman’s sweater is the mens Irish Aran sweater. This style of sweater originated in the Aran Islands, off the west coast of Ireland. It’s made of intricate stitch patterns, and a single sweater may feature several different patterns combined in one overall design.

The 5 best materials for a sweater

Wool: there are many types of wools – merino, shetland and lambswool are the most common. The softest one is merino, followed by lambswool, then shetland. Wool sweaters can be worn over shirts and are best used layered in the office, for example under jackets. A sweater like this mens Irish Aran sweater (mens Irish Aran sweater) is best worn over a thin base layer.

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Cashmere: cashmere equals luxury. It is very soft, warm, delicate and very light. It is the most expensive material, but it feels amazing against the skin. The finest quality cashmere comes from Mongolia and China, while cashmere from Iran and Afghanistan is usually rougher and pills more easily. As well as being incredibly soft to the touch, cashmere is also excellent at keeping you warm and well-insulated.

Cotton: probably the most common material. It can be worn in spring and summer, paired up with casual trousers, and it can be used to complement more elegant outfits.

Silk: it is usually combined with other fabrics, as it is quite rare to find a silk-only sweater. It is a good insulator and great for elegant outfits.

Synthetic material: these materials are very popular, as they feel comfortable on the skin and are stretchy and cheap. The downside is that they don’t last very long, and tend to be replaced after a couple of years.

The Importance of Silicone in the Aerospace Industry

Silicone seals, gaskets and hoses may seem humble things, and often taken for granted, but without them, a lot of groundbreaking technology would be impossible. With better resistance to stress, heat, and oxidation than rubber, silicone products help industries like automotive and aerospace push ever further beyond their previous limitations.

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Strong Market Growth Predicted

A market trends analysis from Grand View Research published in January 2019 predicts strong growth in aircraft and aerospatial industries over the next decade.

Global aerospace parts manufacturing was an 849-billion-dollar-market in 2017 and is expected to continue to grow at around 3.8% until 2025. New generations of lightweight and more fuel-efficient aircraft will drive most of the growth and depend on materials with better temperature tolerance, like silicone, PTFE, FFKM, titanium aluminide, and aluminum lithium. Elastomers like silicones and FFKM readily tolerate temperature extremes between -55 °C and +300 °C.

Another report from the same source predicts similar growth in the silicone market over that period. Globally it was valued at $14.17 billion in 2018 and is expected to grow at 4.5% per annum up to 2025. This figure includes increased use of silicone as an oil additive, as an insulator and sealant for electronic components, and for more familiar roles such as silicone hose and gaskets. Various silicone hose products are available from suppliers such as https://www.goodflexrubber.com/pages/silicone-hose-manufacture.

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New Aircraft

The projected growth is tempting for new companies to enter the aerospace market. American start-up Hermeus, based in Atlanta Georgia, proposes building a commercial airliner capable of reaching Mach 5 – that’s around 3800mph. By comparison, Concorde had a cruise speed of just over Mach 2 (about 1330 mph), and a conventional liner usually flies at just 600mph or lower. If the liner is built, it will mean a flight from New York to London will take about the same time as a train journey from Leicester.

Hermeus intends to use combined-cycle turbine engines. Elastomers play a crucial role in these engines, as well as in the latest hydraulic systems, gearboxes, and airframes, by allowing the aircraft to handle the harsher temperatures generated by more powerful engines. They are also more chemically resistant to the oils used to lubricate turbine engines and hydraulics. The greater resistance of silicone and other new elastomers to deformation under pressure also helps minimize expensive maintenance regimes.

The difference between flexible and metal ductwork

Ducting is used in a wide variety of situations, for heating and ventilation (HVAC) systems and for extracting fumes and dust, for example. But it comes in a number of different types, most notably flexible ducting and rigid, metal ducting.

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The essential difference between these is obvious, but there are other considerations too which we need to look at in more detail.

Flexible Ducting

A flexible duct can be made of a number of different materials. These include PVC, rubber, stainless steel, galvanized steel, and coated polyester fabric. Its advantages are that it’s easy to handle and to attach to plant or to more rigid ducting and this can be done using metal band clamps or zip ties. This means it’s easier and faster to install, especially in existing structures.

The material you choose for your ducting will depend on the environment as in extreme conditions some will stand up better than others. A galvanized spiral duct from a supplier like https://www.dustspares.co.uk/ductwork-parts/galvanised-steel-spiral-duct.html, for example, will be more resistant to heat and cooling. You also need to think about factors like abrasion and exposure to the elements.

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With flexible ducting, it’s important to plan the installation to avoid sharp curves and kinks as well as long unsupported runs. Joints need to be supported and it’s also important to ensure that they are properly sealed. This type of ducting works best for short runs and for adding branches to existing systems.

Metal ducting

Rigid metal ducting is usually specified when it’s being installed at the building stage rather than being retrofitted to an existing structure. It requires more detailed design and measurement and careful installation to ensure that it does its job effectively.

Metal ducting is commonly used for heating and air conditioning systems and planning for it needs to take account of the level of heat and volume of air to be moved and metal ducting offers lower resistance to air flow, so the system is likely to be more efficient overall –https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/air-conditioning-inspections-for-buildings.

Metal ducting is a more expensive option to install initially. However, it can deliver savings in the long run as ongoing maintenance costs are likely to be lower. The choice ultimately comes down to the size and type of system, how it’s going to be used, the location and design of the building, and of course, the budget.

When it was announced that there would be a whole new set of channels coming onto the Television the country rejoiced! They would be getting the choice of 2 channels instead of just 1. Arguments about what to watch were soon going to be raging in British homes as the public got the choice of this or that. Whatever the decision there had to be a decent signal receiver on the roof and the Ariel was the only answer. This is still true today in our digital world and a TV Aerial Installation Cheltenham based organization like http://steveunettaerials.co.uk/services/tv-aerials-repair-and-installation-cheltenham/ can provide the service you need.

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The BBC had been putting out programs since 1935 even when hardly anyone had a television. By 1955 the rates of ownership had gone up thanks to the televised Coronation of Elizbeth II, cheaper imports and the chance to rent rather than buy. After 20 years of monopoly the Government thought it would be a good idea to force the complacent BBC into trying a bit harder by introducing free to view competition in the shape of Independent Television or ITV, although you still had to pay for a TV license so, in effect, you paid twice if you bought something advertised on TV. The BBC was determined to scupper the opening night so and they decided the only way they could do that was by killing off poor Grace Archer in a Barn fire, the effect of which Ambridge is still trying to recover from today.

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The idea behind ITV is that it would provide Regional programming. Lots of different companies sprang up and put in tenders to control the output and produce and area programs. They would make and by programs put out by their fellow independent channels and then act like the BBC did not exist. For there part, the BBC did the same.

One thing that came out of ITV was a sense that they needed to identify themselves. All the BBC needed to do was have a man in a Dinnerjack say in the plummy voice “This is the BBC…” and you knew what you were watching. ITV came up with lots of different ones. Some, like Anglia Television, featured an Airfix model of a Knight on a turntable and the words Anglia on the flag. London Weekend Television had examples of the London skyline reflected in the Thames. Central just had a big white circle. All of them had a short burst of music and depending on what came on you were able to gauge the quality of the program.

Whatever the output ITV was here to stay.

What are isocyanates?

While many people have probably heard of polyurethane, they may not be aware of isocyanates. Isocyanates are used as one of the raw materials when producing polyurethane and are a component in varnishes, paints, and adhesives.

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Formation and characteristics

The isocyanate molecule will include nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen as a group of atoms in what is referred to as an alkyl chain or sometimes as an aromatic ring. Isocyanates can be mono, double or more depending on how many aromatic rings they have. The most popular tend to be diisocyanates, which feature two active alkyd groups. Polyurethane is generated when a diisocyanate is combined with another substance, called a polyol, that has active hydroxyl groups.

Working with isocyanates

Isocyanates are versatile, as they occur in powder and liquid form. Certain precautions need to be taken when working with liquid isocyanates, as they can give off vapors that should not be inhaled. Preventative measures need to be implemented when working with these substances to avoid damage to human health and the environment. An article in the Guardian explains more about the dangers of toxic chemical fumes.

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There are ways of making isocyanates safer to work with, which include making them less reactive and volatile. The main ways of doing this are by a process of blocking the isocyanates or pre-polymerising them, meaning that larger and easier to handle molecules are generated.

Polyurethane and isocyanates are very useful compounds, especially when it comes to making metal bonding adhesives. Polyurethane is also used in many other types of adhesive where a strong and lasting bond is required. This will be effective on a wide range of materials, depending on the precise composition of the adhesive. If you want to discover more about the specifics of metal bonding adhesives, a useful starting point would be to contact a reputable metal bonding adhesives supplier to obtain advice about the best products to use in particular circumstances.

Isocyanates have wide applications in the industrial world. As a fundamental component of polyurethane, they are incredibly useful and their versatility means a huge range of products, including adhesives, can be manufactured using them. While some precautions need to be adopted when working with these compounds, the end results make modern life easier by providing a range of sought-after solutions.

22 centuries later: the new Silk Road opportunity

A new Silk Road that would connect Europe to China’s fast-growing market is being planned by some of the world’s largest trade and transportation organizations. Following the same route taken by Marco Polo when he established the original Silk Road during the Han Dynasty (207 BC to 220 AD), the 21st century Silk Road – enabled by modern navigational technology – is forecast to reduce freight times to days, rather than the weeks or months it can take goods to be transported by sea. This will be an interesting development in the transportation industry and may mean that Same Day Courier Slough businesses have access to a wider global transportation network.

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New Opportunities for Multinationals

The $1trillion’s worth of trade means plenty of opportunity for multinationals, explains John D. Schulz, contributing editor for Logistics Management magazine. In an article on the potential benefits of this new Silk Road, Schulz says that according to business executives and officials from the World Bank and the US Chamber of Commerce – who met at the end of April to discuss the project at a two-day forum held in Washington – the timescale for completion extends over the next decade. There has already been confirmed interest from a number of governments and businesses.

News of the new Silk Road comes at a time when ocean shipping has slowed down, reports Schulz, a possible result of a number of economic factors including the Syrian refugee crisis and recent terrorist attacks in Brussels and France.

But according to some experts, when troubled European economies begin to recover there could be considerable opportunities for the global community of multinational surface transportation providers.

Pallet Potential

A forum was organized by the US embassies to Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Turkey, and was the platform for introducing a number of projects and investments to US business leaders from multinational industries. According to Schulz, there were discussions about the benefits of greater cooperation, harmonizing trade and transit routes, and the importance of an integrated network of transit, logistics, and infrastructure. With pallets the number one choice for shipping and storage, however, there will undoubtedly be room for pallet providers to further the conversation on the immediate and long-term logistics of transporting goods and materials along the new Silk Road.

Tips to successfully use metal to metal adhesives

Soldering or welding is not always an option for bonding two pieces of metal together, particularly for delicate or small projects, or when there isn’t the correct equipment or space available. Companies such as Armourgeddon Tank Driving who offer Tank Driving Days will be used to joining metal items together and may use metal adhesives along with other methods to ensure that their tanks are in the best working condition for members of the public to enjoy the day in and day out.

If you are looking to join together two pieces of metal we’ve got some tips on how you can successfully use metal to metal adhesives.

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Use the right adhesive

The first step to effectively bonding together the metal pieces is to use the right metal bonding adhesive for the job. One of the main forms is an epoxy, which is designed for where structural support is being provided by the metal. Other adhesives are commonly used for less critical projects – such as arts and crafts or jewelry making.

Clean the surface

The effectiveness of the adhesive can be reduced if there’s any dirt, grease, oil or other types of residue present on the surface. This will make it harder to create a strong bond, so it’s essential to clean both of the surfaces properly beforehand and then leave them to dry completely.

Create a grip

If you want to ensure that the metal bonding adhesive forms a very strong bond then you can create some texture on the surface of the metal to give it something to grip onto. It’s easy to do this by rubbing sandpaper across the surfaces so that they become rough and gritty.

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Follow the instructions

It is important to ensure that you read any instructions that come along with your chosen adhesive. These will let you know how long the glue will take to dry and if the adhesive needs to be combined with another element before using it.

One of the key benefits of a metal adhesive is that it can save you both time and money compared to other methods, for example, welding. However, not following the instructions correctly can mean you need to carry out the work again.

Apply pressure

The metal adhesive doesn’t just work like paper glue and you’ll need to use some pressure to ensure you get a strong enough bond. You can use a vice or clamp to keep them pressed together, which will encourage the adhesive to work.

 

Why Must You Check Bonding and Earthing for Safety?

If there is a difference in electrical potential between one conductive surface and another, then an electromotive force exists. If you touch both, that EMF travels through you – with potentially damaging effects. Potential electrical discharges can also damage equipment or start a fire. Engineers that work in plumbing and for Gloucester Boiler Service companies such as http://www.hprservicesltd.com/gloucester-boilers/boiler-service-gloucester/ take many safety precautions to ensure that they are working in a safe environment and that where necessary the electrical supply to a particular appliance such as a boiler or particular area of the house is switched off before work begins.

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Electrical Bonding

Electrical bonding and earthing are both ways to address this danger. Bonding is the strategy of connecting components or surfaces together with a conductor so that no potential difference can arise between them. Earthing denotes the connection of the whole system to earth so charge can then drain away. It’s often used synonymously with “grounding”, although technically grounding can denote the neural pathway that returns current to the source. Wherever possible, Earth connections use green (or yellow and green) cabling, whereas in the technical sense grounding is often accomplished by a black one (never assume either is safe to touch when an appliance is connected).

Even the charge from an AA battery can damage electronics if it discharges incorrectly, although the current is not a direct threat to health. However, a shock from a car battery can be enough to kill. Any equipment for connection to the mains must be safely earthed. Bonding and earth connections are usually secured with metal grub screws, bolts, soldering or welding.

 

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Metal Bonding Adhesive

Most adhesives are insulators, but their use to create electrical connections is becoming more common due to the development of new conductive adhesives. These usually take the form of adhesive resins and pastes infused with conducting materials like silver or carbon fibers. Whilst these are already being successfully used in low voltage electronic circuits, metal bonding adhesive does not normally have the combination of conductivity and adhesive reliability to replace metal joints for safety-critical earthing, although they can add strength to them.

However whenever electricity is involved always be clear whether conductance or insulation is the quality you require and consult the supplier for advice. It is also common sense to use registered electricians for electrical repairs and household wiring.

Conductive adhesives are sometimes painted on the inner surface of insulating boxes. So used, they create a Faraday cage that contains electromagnetic radiation and inhibits discharges between internal and external components.

What to consider when converting commercial to residential

With the UK housing market still struggling to meet demand, more investors are looking at the prospect of converting their commercial portfolios into residential homes but there are a number of areas that you need to consider when doing so.

According to data from the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), the amount of commercial space across the country is declining at the fastest rate since records were started in 1998. Many of these buildings are being used for residential developments, especially with the loosening of planning rules which has made it easier to make the conversion to residential use. If you’re looking to convert a commercial premise into residential use, what should you consider?

Convert or develop

One of the first decisions will need to be whether you intend to convert the existing building on a site or knock down the property and start again. Both have their benefits on a practical and financial level and it will largely depend on the state of the current property and its suitability for residential use.

You will need to factor in the ability to bring a building up to the right standards for it to be habitable, such as how you can install the appropriate fire prevention measures. One option would be to speak to Automist installers in Bristol about using that system. It can be fitted into existing buildings, even those of a period style, in order to meet building regulations.

Need for planning permission

In 2013 the Government introduced a temporary addition to Permitted Development rights which enables office space to be converted to residential use without the need for planning permission. The current rulings apply to projects that will be completed by May 2016. There is no current confirmation if these rights are to be extended, but news on any further changes or addition to the Permitted Development rules should be made public soon.

If you are unsure if your project meets the requirements of Permitted Development then you should speak to your local planning department. They will be able to talk you through the process and tell you whether your conversion project falls within the rules or requires planning permission.